The World Organization Against Terrorism (WOAT) provides urgent interventions on all forms of terrorism cross the world, in order to protect
individuals, groups, corporations or states against terrorism. Specific anti- terrorism programs allow it to provide support to specific categories of people vulnerable to terrorism especially children in partnership with United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC); UN Office of Crimes and Drugs; Amnesty International; International Criminal Court; International Court of Justice; World Organization Against Torture; World Human Rights Watch and UNHCHR, etc.
The World Organization Against Terrorism (WOAT) also seeks the following interventions: The prohibition of sales and transfer of arms and related materials. The freezing of funds and other related financial assets and resources to terrorists and related armed forces. The prohibition of technical assistance or training in military matters or the manufacturing and maintenance of arms and related materials.
The prevention of Terrorist and other armed forces to enter and transit through member countries. The World Organization Against Acts of Terrorism also communicates, collaborates, and submits dynamic and efficient reports on special anti- terrorism mechanisms to the United Nations, and other anti-terrorism agencies. World Organization Against Terrorism helps to develop dynamic and effective international norms for the protection against terrorism.
Historical Examples of States Organized Terrorism
After providing support for the 1985 terrorist attacks against airports in Rome and Vienna, Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Gaddafi indicated that his regime would continue to aid in similar endeavors. Openly backing terrorist groups such as Red Army Faction and the Irish Republican Army, he also attempted to claim the entire Gulf of Sidra as territorial waters. A violation of international law, this claim led President Ronald Reagan to order three carriers from the US Sixth Fleet to enforce the standard twelve-mile limit to territorial waters.
Crossing into the gulf, American forces engaged the Libyans on March 23/24, 1986 in what became known as the Action in the Gulf of Sidra. This resulted in the sinking of a Libyan corvette and patrol boat as well as strikes against selected ground targets. In the wake of the incident, Gaddafi called for Arab assaults on American interests. This culminated on April 5 when Libyan agents bombed the La Belle disco in West Berlin. Frequented by American servicemen, the night club was extensively damaged with two American soldiers and one civilian killed as well as 229 injured.
In the wake of the bombing, the United States quickly obtained intelligence that showed the Libyans were responsible. After several days of extensive talks with European and Arab allies, Reagan ordered air strikes against terrorism-related targets in Libya. Claiming that he possessed “irrefutable proof,” Reagan stated that Gaddafi had ordered attacks to “to cause maximum and indiscriminate casualties.” Addressing the nation on the night of April 14, he argued “Self defense is not only our right, it is our duty. It is the purpose behind the mission…a mission fully consistent with Article 51 of the UN Charter.”
Operation El Dorado Canyon
As Reagan spoke on television, American aircraft were in the air. Dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon, the mission was the culmination of extensive and complex planning. As the US Navy assets in the Mediterranean lacked sufficient tactical strike aircraft for the mission, the US Air Force was tasked with providing part of the attack force. Participation in the strike was delegated to the F-111Fs of the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing based at RAF Lakenheath. These were to be supported by four electronic warfare EF-111A Ravens from the 20th Tactical Fighter Wing at RAF Upper Heyford.
Mission planning was quickly complicated when both Spain and France refused overflight privileges for the F-111s. As a result, the USAF aircraft were forced to fly south, then east through the Straits of Gibraltar in order to reach Libya. This wide detour added approximately 2,600 nautical miles to the round trip and required support from 28 KC-10 and KC-135 tankers. The targets selected for Operation El Dorado Canyon were intended to aid in crippling Libya’s ability to support international terrorism. Targets for the F-111s included the military facilities at Tripoli’s airport and Bab al-Azizia barracks.
The aircraft from Britain were also tasked with destroying the underwater sabotage school at Murat Sidi Bilal. As the USAF attacked targets in western Libya, US Navy aircraft were largely assigned targets to the east around Benghazi. Utilizing a mix of A-6 Intruders, A-7 Corsair IIs, and F/A-18 Hornets, they were to attack the Jamahiriyah Guard Barracks and suppress Libyan air defenses. In addition, eight A-6s were tasked with hitting Benina Military Airfield to prevent the Libyans from launching fighters to intercept the strike package. Coordination for the raid was conducted by a USAF officer aboard a KC-10.
Aftermath of Operation El Dorado Canyon
After lingering in the area searching for the lost F-111F, American aircraft returned to their bases. The successful completion of the USAF component of the mission marked the longest combat mission flown by tactical aircraft. On the ground, the raid killed/wounded around 45-60 Libyan soldiers and officials while destroying several IL-76 transport aircraft, 14 MiG-23 fighters, and two helicopters. In the wake of the attacks, Gaddafi attempted to claim that he had won a great victory and began circulating false reports of extensive civilian casualties.
The attack was condemned by many nations and some argued that it far exceeded the right of self-defense set forth by the Article 51 of the UN Charter. The United States received support for its actions from Canada, Great Britain, Israel, Australia, and 25 other countries. Though the attack damaged the terrorist infrastructure within Libya, it did not hamper Gaddafi’s support of terrorist endeavors. Among the terrorist actions, he later supported were the hijacking of Pam Am Flight 73 in Pakistan, the shipment of arms aboard MV Eksund to European terrorist groups, and most famously the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland.
Violent Non-State Actors Terrorism (V.N.S.AT) is where an organization uses act of terrorism to reach its goals. The term has been used in severally to identify the following groups:
Around 2:00 AM on April 15, the American aircraft began to arrive over their targets. Though the raid was intended to be a surprise, Gaddafi received warning of its arrival from Prime Minister Karmenu Mifsud Bonnici of Malta who informed him that unauthorized aircraft were crossing Maltese airspace. This allowed Gaddafi to escape his residence at Bab al-Azizia shortly before it was hit. As the raiders approached, the formidable Libyan air defense network was suppressed by US Navy aircraft firing a mix of AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missiles.
In action for approximately twelve minutes, American aircraft struck each of the designated targets though several were forced to abort for various reasons. Though each target was hit, some bombs fell off target damaging civilian and diplomatic buildings. One bomb narrowly missed the French embassy. In the course of the attack, one F-111F, flown by Captains Fernando L. Ribas-Dominicci and Paul F. Lorence, was lost over the Gulf of Sidra. On the ground, many Libyan soldiers abandoned the posts and no aircraft were launched to intercept the attackers.
Militias/ Militants The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) The group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings and other types of executions of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes. ISIL also committed ethnic cleansing on an historic scale in northern Iraq. In Syria, the group conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions and by December 2015 it held a large area in western Iraq and eastern Syria, containing an estimated 2.8 to 8 million people, where it enforced its interpretation of sharia law. ISIL is believed to be operational in 18 countries across the world, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, with “aspiring branches” in Mali, Egypt, Somalia, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines. In 2015, ISIL was estimated to have an annual budget of more than US$1 billion and a force of more than 30,000 fighters
Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations
- 10/8/1997 Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)
- 10/8/1997 Aum Shinrikyo (AUM)
- 10/8/1997 Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
- 10/8/1997 Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group – IG)
- 10/8/1997 HAMAS
- 10/8/1997 Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM)
- 10/8/1997 Hizballah
- 10/8/1997 Kahane Chai (Kach)
- 10/8/1997 Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK, aka Kongra-Gel)
- 10/8/1997 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
- 10/8/1997 National Liberation Army (ELN)
- 10/8/1997 Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
- 10/8/1997 Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
- 10/8/1997 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
- 10/8/1997 PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC)
- 10/8/1997 Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
- 10/8/1997 Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)
- 10/8/1997 Shining Path (SL)
- 10/8/1999 al-Qa’ida (AQ)
- 9/25/2000 Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
- 5/16/2001 Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA)
- 12/26/2001 Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)
- 12/26/2001 Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LeT)
- 3/27/2002 Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (AAMB)
- 3/27/2002 Asbat al-Ansar (AAA)
- 3/27/2002 al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
- 8/9/2002 Communist Party of the Philippines/New People’s Army (CPP/NPA)
- 10/23/2002 Jemaah Islamiya (JI)
- 1/30/2003 Lashkar i Jhangvi (LJ)
- 3/22/2004 Ansar al-Islam (AAI)
- 7/13/2004 Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)
- 12/17/2004 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (formerly al-Qa’ida in Iraq)
- 6/17/2005 Islamic Jihad Union (IJU)
- 3/5/2008 Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B)
- 3/18/2008 al-Shabaab
- 5/18/2009 Revolutionary Struggle (RS)
- 7/2/2009 Kata’ib Hizballah (KH)
- 1/19/2010 al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
- 8/6/2010 Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI)
- 9/1/2010 Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP)
- 11/4/2010 Jundallah
- 5/23/2011 Army of Islam (AOI)
- 9/19/2011 Indian Mujahedeen (IM)
- 3/13/2012 Jemaah Anshorut Tauhid (JAT)
- 5/30/2012 Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB)
- 9/19/2012 Haqqani Network (HQN)
- 3/22/2013 Ansar al-Dine (AAD)
- 11/14/2013 Boko Haram
- 11/14/2013 Ansaru
- 12/19/2013 al-Mulathamun Battalion (AMB)
- 1/13/2014 Ansar al-Shari’a in Benghazi
- 1/13/2014 Ansar al-Shari’a in Darnah
- 1/13/2014 Ansar al-Shari’a in Tunisia
- 4/10/2014 ISIL Sinai Province (formerly Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis)
- 5/15/2014 al-Nusrah Front
- 8/20/2014 Mujahidin Shura Council in the Environs of Jerusalem (MSC)
- 9/30/2015 Jaysh Rijal al-Tariq al Naqshabandi (JRTN)
- 1/14/2016 ISIL-Khorasan (ISIL-K)
- 5/20/2016 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant’s Branch in Libya (ISIL-Libya)
- 7/1/2016 Al-Qa’ida in the Indian Subcontinent
- 8/17/2017 Hizbul Mujahideen (HM)
- 2/28/2018 ISIS-Bangladesh
- 2/28/2018 ISIS-Philippines
- 2/28/2018 ISIS-West Africa
- 5/23/2018 ISIS-Greater Sahara
- 7/11/2018 al-Ashtar Brigades (AAB)
- 9/6/2018 Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM)